no

A. no=S S come, go along
B. no=A=O A send for, summon O
C. auxiliary V-no come and V
D. imperative no! V-phrase, come!

No is a single-syllable verb meaning ‘come’. In the rare cases when it is not followed by an auxiliary nor has a rational animate subject, the form of no is nodu. Arguments for no are the same as with da. The main difference between da and no is deictic. No implies motion towards the speaker or observer. It is also used for motion along a path parallel to something else.

no can be used as an auxiliary to mean ‘come and V’. Like da, it is not used with the verbs of stance (sede, tene, degi) nor with any verbs denoting mental activity (dullo, callo, canno). It is also not used with da or with itself.

Kuno-no, rather than meaning ‘come and get’ is used to mean ‘come with’ or ‘bring’.

Imperative no! is a single syllable word, which is allowed as it is considered an interjection. It can be appended to a verb phrase to make it imperative. For example: Kuno=di=nu, no! ‘You get the thing, do!’ or ‘Get the thing!’. This is more polite than using da! It might be used by a parent towards a child, for example, or an elder person towards a much younger person. It has the urgency of da! but is tempered by affection.

Sentences with no as a main verb.

Sentences with no as an auxiliary verb.

Sentences with no! the interjection.

Tomorrow: nolo and nota.

da

A. da=S S go
B. da=A=O A send O; A make O go
C. auxiliary V-da go and V
D. imperative da! V-phrase, do!

Da is a single-syllable verb meaning ‘go’. In the rare cases when it is not followed by an auxiliary nor has a rational animate subject, the form of da is dodu. Arguments for da include the subject, the person or thing going, and the following possible peripheral phrases: the point of origin marked with pe, the destination marked with du, a companion marked with ne, a path of travel also marked with ne, and a location wherein this is all taking place marked with su.

Da can be used as an auxiliary to mean go and V. It is not used with the verbs of stance (sede, tene, degi) nor with any verbs denoting mental activity (dullo, callo, canno). It can be used with itself da-da, which can mean ‘travel’ (with an A set subject) or ‘wander’ (with an O set subject).

Dunno-da ‘go and see’ generally is used to mean ‘hunt’, and kuno-da, rather than meaning ‘go and get’ is used to mean ‘go with’ or ‘take’.

Imperative da! is a single syllable word, which is allowed as it is considered an interjection. It can be appended to a verb phrase or a clause to make it imperative. For example: Kuno=di=nu, da! ‘You get the thing, do!’ or ‘Get the thing!’. This is the most basic and strongest form of imperative, and is not considered to be polite. It would never be used towards someone one has any respect for.

Sentences with da as a main verb.

Sentences with da as an auxiliary verb.

Sentences with da! the interjection.

Tomorrow: no.

se

A. se=A=O X A say (to O) X
B. se=S S speak, make a communicative noise

Se means ‘say’, and the subject is the person speaking. The object of se is always the audience. X can be reported speech or a topic. Reported speech is in a complement clause. The complement clause is marked by dodu only when it is indirect speech. Direct quotes do not use a complement clause marker. The topic is referenced in a peripheral phrase marked with ne. The O argument, the audience, can be elided, though it usually isn’t.

Se also has an intransitive construction that refers to making a communicative noise of some sort. Again, the subject is the speaker or the noise-maker. If an audience is needed, it is put in a peripheral phrase marked with du. Again, the topic of the speaking can be referenced in a peripheral phrase marked with ne.

Xunumi-Wudu does not allow regular spoken words to have only a single syllable. However, since se has to have a subject enclitic, and since things that speak tend to be rational animates, this is not an issue. When se takes an auxiliary, it forms a compound with the auxiliary, se-sede ‘be talking’ so that the full word is no longer a single syllable.

Sentences with se.

Tomorrow: da.

callo & canno

A. callo=A=O A think on O; A think that CoCl
B. canno=A=O A feel O; A feel that CoCl
C. ADJ canno=S S feel ADJ
D. callo-canno=A(=O) A expect (of O) dodu CoCl
E. auxiliary V-callo seem to V, almost V

Callo comes from casa ‘belly’ and the obsolete particle lo ‘up to’. Canno comes from casa ‘belly’ and the verb no ‘come’. Both verbs cover mental activity, and differ in that callo denotes volitional or deliberate mental activity, and canno non-volitional or non-deliberate mental activity. So, while callo generally means ‘think’ and canno ‘feel’, daydreaming or the sort of non-volitional thinking that we all sometimes engage in would be described with canno.

Both callo and canno can take an O that is a noun phrase or a complement clause. The complement clause will not take an overt marker. Only with callo-canno, which has a built-in and occasionally elided O uses a complement clause with the complement clause marker dodu, derived from da ‘this’ and du ‘to, for’.

Canno has an alternate construction C, which is only used with adjectives (or adverbs) like gehe ‘good’ and basa ‘bad’. In these cases, since the expected O is an adjective, there is no O clitic on the verb, making it an intransitive construction. Generally the subject of canno is marked with an O clitic, since feeling is non-volitional. If the source or cause of the feeling is expressed, it is put in a peripheral phrase marked with pe.

Sentences with canno.

Sentences with callo as a main verb.

Sentences with callo as an auxiliary verb.

Tomorrow: se.

dullo

A. dullo=A=O A know of, learn O; A know, learn that CoCl
B. auxiliary V-dullo be able to V

Dullo means ‘know’. It can also mean ‘teach’ with causative auxiliaries. Its object can be a full complement clause (CoCl) rather than a noun phrase. Dullo‘s complement clause is not marked by any sort of marker.

Dullo comes from an obsolete noun dunu ‘eyes’ and the obsolete particle lo ‘up to’.

Auxiliary dullo can be used with any verb where it makes semantic sense.

Dullo-dullo uses both senses and means ‘can learn’.

Sentences with dullo as a main verb.

Sentences with dullo as an auxiliary verb.

Tomorrow: callo and canno. Two verbs!

kuno

A. kuno=A=O A have, get O
B. kuno=CS CS become (CC, adjective)

Transitive kuno is derived from ku(wu) ‘hand’ and the verb no ‘come’. Its basic meaning is ‘get’ or ‘have’ as in physically possess. It can be used as a copula meaning ‘become’.

Kuno can also be used for sensory input like camme. Unlike camme, it is neutral in regards to deliberateness and volition. Also, since dunno exists, it is not used with doŋi. It is commonly used with sada and giŋi for hearing and smelling/tasting. Its negative is also the common negative of the camme-based verb phrases, primarily because one cannot easily judge if someone is deliberately not listening vs not hearing.

The causative forms of kuno mean ‘give’.

Sentences with kuno.

Tomorrow: dullo.

dunno

A. dunno=A=O A see O

Dunno means ‘see’, and contrasts with doŋi-camme ‘deliberately look at/watch O’ in that it is neutral with regards to deliberateness or volition. This makes dunno the more usual verb for ‘see’, though constructions with camme and with kuno (tomorrow) can be used for hearing and other forms of sensing.

Dunno-dunno, reduplicated dunno, means ‘see and see’ or ‘search for O’.

Dunno comes from an obsolete noun dunu ‘eyes’ and the verb no ‘come’ (which we will cover later, of course).

B. modo-dunno=S S dream

Modo-dunno incorporates the noun modo ‘moon’ to mean ‘dream’ or ‘see via a moon’. Unlike its base verb, modo-dunno is intransitive. The S argument usually comes from the O set, since dreaming is not considered to be volitional. Using an A clitic would imply that the subject is a shaman deliberately courting a vision.

Sentences with dunno.

Tomorrow: kuno.

camme

A. camme=A=O A eat, consume, intake O

Camme is derived from casa ‘belly’ plus the obsolete particle me ‘into’, so ‘into the belly’. Thus, it is entirely appropriate that camme means ‘eat O’ when O is a class III food noun.

One peculiarity of Xunumi-Wudu verb phrases is that they can include a noun preceding the verb to describe an instrument or manner. Not all verbs do this, but camme certainly does. Camme can use body parts such as doŋi ‘eye’, sada ‘ear’, and giŋi ‘nose’ as incorporated manner nouns, and then means to deliberately intake via the noun. So doŋi-camme ‘deliberately look at/watch O’, sada-camme ‘deliberately listen to/for O’, giŋi-camme ‘deliberately sniff/taste O’. With all these verbs, the subject is the perceiver and the object is the sight, sound, smell, or taste perceived.

Sentences with camme.

Tomorrow: dunno.

degi

A. degi=S S recline, lie
B. degi=A=O A lay O (down)

Degi is the third ambi-transitive stance verb, and means ‘recline’ or ‘lie (down)’ in the intransitive and ‘lay O down’ in the transitive. Again, as with all the stance verbs, location can be expressed in a peripheral phrase with su.

Degi is not in general use as a copula, except with the noun kini ‘land’, as in sidili=todu degi kini ‘the land is alive/blooming’ expressing the blooming of the desert after a rain. The noun gada ‘water’, and other nouns referencing water and land, will sometimes also be described with an attribute using degi. However, speakers might also use tene as the copula with these nouns.

While degi can use sede as a progressive auxiliary, degi-sede=le ‘I am lying down’, it does not have to use tene. Many older speakers will use degi-degi rather than degi-tene for a progressive construction with a non class I subject, particularly in more formal situations.

Sentences with degi.

Tomorrow: camme.

tene

A. tene=S S sit
B. tene=A=O A sit O (down)
C. tene=CS CS is (CC, adjective, peripheral phrase)
D. auxiliary V-tene V-ing

Tene in senses A and B means ‘sit’. As an intransitive, the subject is the person or thing sitting. As a transitive, it acquires a causative meaning, with the object being the person or thing sitting and the subject is the cause. Tene behaves very much like sede, including in the use or not of a causative and a passive and with peripheral arguments.

As a copula and as an auxiliary, tene has all the uses of sede, except that where sede requires a class I subject, tene is used for all other classes of subject (II, III, IV). So, when a verb has a class I subject, use sede as the progressive auxiliary. Otherwise, use tene.

Sentences with tene as a main verb.

Sentences with tene as an auxiliary verb.

Tomorrow: degi.