Daedalus et Icarus, 7

Aqua quae eum recepit nomen ab illo tenet. At pater infelix, nunc non iam pater, “Icare,” dixit, “Icare, ubi es? Quo in loco te quaeram? Icare,” dicebat cum pennas notas in undis summis spectavit et damnavit suas artes. Tum corpus carum filii in sepulchrum posuit et terra a nomine pueri dicta est–Icaria.

la anhāri anakkāsimma pa jawēramma; ē masōwa mamāsa āl wa masōwa; samma ien λi īkarus; λi īkarus, la sāen sūkēñ; salla jarūna mo riēn sūkēñ; il samma ien λi īkarus il sema jatīāni jawāññi sū jatāoni ōl ī samma jatūrelil mo jakēlimma; ē ñamma mīsa macāna janōññū rā jajōste ī āl pa jekiēn mamōīñ jawēramma īkarja;

la anhāri anakkāsimma aqua quae eum recepit
pa jawēramma nomen ab illo tenet
ē masōwa mamāsa at pater infelix
āl wa masōwa nunc non iam pater
samma ien λi īkarus “Icare,” dixit
λi īkarus, la sāen sūkēñ Icare, ubi es?
salla jarūna mo riēn sūkēñ Quo in loco te quaeram?
il samma ien λi īkarus “Icare,” dicebat
il sema jatīāni jawāññi cum pennas notas…(spectavit)
sū jatāoni ōl in undis summis
ī samma jatūrelil mo jakēlimma et damnavit suas artes
ē ñamma mīsa macāna janōññū tum corpus carum filii…posuit
rā jajōste in sepulchrum
ī āl pa jekiēn et terra
mamōīñ jawēramma īkarja a nomine pueri dicta est–Icaria

Daedalus et Icarus, 6

Homines in terra–piscator, pastor, arator–hos viderunt qui per aera volare poterant et hos esse deos crediderunt. Et iam insulae Graeciae relictae sunt cum puer gaudere coepit et patrem ducem reliquit. Desideravit volare altius in caelo et audacia eum ab itinere patris duxit. Sol ceram mollit et pennae liberatae sunt. Puer nudis bracchiis aera percussit.

ē sexe jarūna ke mēli sū jekiēn — mēλārōn mahāwrōn māxtōn — ien ñi matūi rā jūra āñ ī sexe jaþēλa ien la sāenne mērji; il aþ la jalīri jakerāeki sū sāenne īr il sema anānte jānne mo mamōīñ ma ñi rū masōwa mahālien īr; tema jakīñen ien ñi matū mōlte nā sū ankēji ōl tō jāo ñi sāen rū masōwa jaþīñamma īr tō ancāra anhālien; ē ñamma anmēpi anmēxi ā malō aþ ñi jatīāni jerēλi; ñamma jaxēti sū ankēji ā mamōīñ satāka ānen jatanīsa wā;

ē sexe jarūna (viderunt)
ke mēli sū jekiēn homines in terra
mēλārōn mahāwrōn māxtōn piscator, pastor, arator
ien ñi matūi rā jūra āñ hos qui per aera volare (poterant)
ī sexe jaþēλa et crediderunt
ien la sāenne mērji hos esse deos
il aþ la jalīri jakerāeki et iam insulae Graeciae
sū sāenne īr relictae sunt
il sema anānte jānne mo mamōīñ cum puer gaudere coepit
ma ñi rū masōwa mahālien īr et patrem ducem reliquit
tema jakīñen (desideravit)
ien ñi matū mōlte nā volare altius
sū ankēji ōl in caelo
tō jāo ñi sāen eum
rū masōwa jaþīñamma īr ab itinere patris
tō ancāra anhālien audacia…duxit
ē ñamma anmēpi anmēxi ā malō Sol ceram mollit
aþ ñi jatīāni jerēλi et pennae liberatae sunt
ñamma jaxēti percussit
sū ankēji ā mamōīñ puer…aera
satāka ānen jatanīsa wā nudis bracchiis

Daedalus et Icarus, 5

Praecepta volandi dat dum novas alas umeris pueri accommodat. Manus patris tremunt et oscula ultima filio dat. Pennis motus pater in aere volat. Timet et respectat velut avis quae parvam avem ducit et eam volare docet; Daedalus ipse suas alas movet et alas filii respectat.

il semme antū jatēŋŋi il ñamma jañānti jawāññīwi rā mamōīñ sañāma ōl; ē ñi masōwa sakū jārrāna ē semme jacōñi japēxeni mo mīsa; ñi masōwa matū ānen jañānti jarāe rā jūra; ē sema jamīra ī samma jarūna ñe jatū jahālien ja semme ē jarūna ī antēleni jē antū mo jatū jīña; ē ñamma jañāntimma jarā ā taetalus aþ samma jarūna mo mīsa jañāntimma;

il semme antū jatēŋŋi praecepta volandi dat
il ñamma jañānti jawāññīwi dum novas alas…accommodat
rā mamōīñ sañāma ōl umeris pueri
ē ñi masōwa sakū jārrāna manus patris tremunt
ē semme jacōñi japēxeni mo mīsa et oscula ultima filio dat
ñi… matū…rā jūra in aere volat
masōwa ānen jañānti jarāe pennis motus pater
sema jamīra timet
ī samma jarūna et respectat
ñe jatū jahālien velut avis quae…ducit
ja semme ē jarūna …eam…(docet)
ī antēleni jē antū et volare (docet)
mo jatū jīña parvam avem
ñamma jañāntimma jarā suas alas movet
ā taetalus Daedalus
aþ samma jarūna mo mīsa jañāntimma et alas filii respectat

Daedalus et Icarus, 4

Pater filium sic monuit, “Tene viam mediam, Icare. Si ibis prope mare, unda pennas gravabit. Si prope solem ibis, ignis pennas vastabit. Te viam mediam tenere iubeo. Vola inter utrumque, mare et solem. Me duce, carpe viam.”

semme jatasēña ke masōwa mo mīsa ien ñi riēn rā jaþīña jāña, λi īkarus. hi ñi riēn rā anālhāri nō hi ñi jatīāni jatūmi tō jatāoni; hi ñi riēn rā malō nō hi ñi jatīāni annōri tō annāoli; selre ien ñi riēn rā jaþīña jāña; ñi riēn matū rā jēnne ē anālhāri ē malō āñ kā; nīkanle mahālien ñi riēn rā jaþīña kā;

ke masōwa mo mīsa pater filium
jatasēña (monuit)
ñi riēn rā jaþīña jāña tene viam mediam
λi īkarus Icare
hi ñi riēn rā anālhāri nō si ibis prope mare
hi ñi jatīāni jatūmi tō jatāoni unda pennas gravabit
hi ñi riēn rā malō nō si prope solem ibis
hi ñi jatīāni annōri tō annāoli ignis pennas vastabit
selre ien ñi riēn rā jaþīña jāña te viam mediam tenere iubeo
ñi riēn matū (vola)
rā jēnne ē anālhāri ē malō āñ kā inter utrumque, mare et solem
nīkanle mahālien me duce
ñi riēn rā jaþīña kā carpe viam

Daedalus et Icarus, 3

Puer Icarus, filius Daedali, ad patrem stat spectatque dum pater laborat. Nescit se sua pericula tangere dum pennas tenet et ceram digito mollit et ludo suo mirabile opus patris impedit. Denique postquam ultima penna in loco posita est, artifex, duabus alis apertis et motis, in aere pependit.

ē la īkarus mīsa taetalus mamōīñēma sū masōwa nū ē sema sakēwīke mo sarōña; wā sema jaxiēna ien il ñamma sāka rā ansēña āñ il ñamma sāka rā jatīāni āñ il ñamma anmēpi anmēxi; samma japāsre mo masōwa sakēwīke jamārwakie ānen jajēra; il antielen ñi jatīān japēxena rā jasōþa il ñi makēlanen ānen jañānte ēnne jakōrja jarēspe melūr;

īkarus mīsa taetalus mamōīñēma puer Icarus, filius Daedali
sū masōwa nū ad patrem stat
sema sakēwīke mo sarōña spectatque dum pater laborat
wā sema jaxiēna nescit
il ñamma sāka rā ansēña āñ se sua pericula tangere
il ñamma sāka rā jatīāni āñ dum pennas tenet
il ñamma anmēpi anmēxi et ceram mollit
samma japāsre impedit
mo masōwa sakēwīke jamārwakie mirabile opus patris
ānen jajēra ludo
il antielen postquam
ñi jatīān japēxena rā jasōþa ultima penna in loco posita est
makēlanen artifex
ānen jañānte ēnne jakōrja jarēspe duabus alis apertis et motis
melūr (pependit)

Daedalus et Icarus, 2

Tum Daedalus animum in artes ignotas dimittit et naturam novat. Nam pennas in ordine ponit a minima usque ad longissimam. Sic quondam fistulam rusticam Pan disparibus papyris fecerat. Deinde partes medias imasque cera adligat atque parvo curvamine pennas ita compositas flectit. Potes putare has esse alas avium verarum.

il aþ semeñ ke taetalus mo sasōna jakēli jawāññīwi tō tūaþ ñamma jatāelle; ñamma jatīāni anxālāe ja pa jañūna ñe jīña ŋō jē jōna ŋō; te jahōwa ja ōrra ñamma jaxīmīkimma janīseni tō anxīññeni ankāori ā pān; ñamma ē anānīke tō jāñi tō jatāwi ānen anmēpi aþ jawēλa jatāwīñ tō jatīāni jaxālāji; sere jaþēλa ien la þō jatū jalā jañāntimma cēja;

il aþ semeñ ke taetalus tum Daedalus
mo sasōna jakēli jawāññīwi animum in artes ignotas dimittit
tō tūaþ ñamma jatāelle et naturam novat
ñamma jatīāni anxālāe pennas in ordine ponit
pa jañūna ñe jīña ŋō jē jōna ŋō a minima usque ad longissimam
te jahōwa sic
jaxīmīkimma janīseni quondam fistulam rusticam
tō anxīññeni ankāori disparibus papyris
ā pān Pan
ñamma anānīke (adligat)
tō jāñi tō jatāwi partes medias imasque
ānen anmēpi cera
jawēλa jatāwīñ parvo curvamine
tō jatīāni jaxālāji pennas ita compositas
sere jaþēλa…cēja potes putare
la þō jatū jalā jañāntimma has esse alas avium verarum

Daedalus et Icarus, 1

Daedalus et Icarus

Daedalus in insula Creta longum exsilium egit. Tactus loci natalis amore, diu et magnopere insulam reliquere desiderabat, sed mari clausus erat. “Minos, rex Cretae,” inquit, “terras et undas tenet, at caelum certe est apertum. Caelo ibimus. Quamquam omnia Minos possidet, tamen non aera possidet.”

λi taetalus λi īkarus

te taetalus mapēranen sū jalīra kerēta il jahōλen;tema jakīñen ānen anþīmme il jahōλen to japāŋŋien ja ñi jamōla ien ñi saen rū jalīra ewaþ te jālhāra jarēþa japōha jē saen; tamma ien ñamma ē anekiēni ē antāoni anpōhi ā mīnōs makerāon sū kerēta luhañen ewaþ kexien la ankēji ankōrji; ñalla jarēþa sū ankēji rēha; tō mīnōs pa antatēŋŋe jē sūnaren tōnaren mīnōs pa antatēŋŋe jē ankēji wā;

te taetalus mapēranen Daedalus…(exsilium egit)
sū jalīra kerēta in insula Creta
il jahōλen longum
tema jakīñen ānen anþīmme tactus…amore/desiderabat…magnopere
il jahōλen diu
to japāŋŋien ja ñi jamōla loci natalis
ien ñi saen rū jalīra insulam reliquere
ewaþ te jālhāra jarēþa japōha jē saen sed mari clausus erat
tamma ien inquit
ñamma ē anekiēni ē antāoni anpōhi terras et undas tenet
ā mīnōs makerāon sū kerēta Minos, rex Cretae
ewaþ kexien la ankēji ankōrji at caelum certe est apertum
ñalla jarēþa sū ankēji rēha caelo ibimus
tō mīnōs pa antatēŋŋe jē sūnaren quamquam omnia Minos possidet
tōnaren mīnōs pa antatēŋŋe jē ankēji wā tamen non aera possidet

Translating Latin to Kēlen

As a summer project I decided to translate the interim readings from my Latin textbook into Kēlen (and Sodemadu*). Here is the first reading. This is the first of several posts. I’ll post one every Monday and Thursday until I run out. Feel free to ask questions about the translation. That said, it is not as exact a translation as my Latin professor would expect. 😉

I intended to do more than the first interim reading, but time got away from me. I still plan on doing more, but Latin class starts up again on the 24th, so I doubt it will happen before Christmas.

I ended up not doing Sodemadu* as that language just doesn’t have the vocabulary. With Kēlen, the vocabulary either already existed, or was easy to derive from the existing public corpus, or was drawn from my private notes full of not-ready-for-prime-time vocabulary items.

*was sodna-lɛni

Epiphanies at 3am and the effect they have on conlanging….

So, this morning at 3am or so I had an epiphany, and it requires re-doing or maybe just re-organizing my verbs and my nouns.

See, the verbs in the new language (currently called sodemadu) all describe paths, and motion along said path. I had previously divided them into verbs of motion, which fit that description very well (except maybe evi and ɛmɛmɛ), and verbs of stance, which function more like copulas and are differentiated by the shape of the subject. But really, what is going on is that the verbs group by the dimensionality of the path.

By dimensionality I mean the grade-school idea of 1 dimension is a dot, 2 dimensions are a line, and 3 dimensions are a plane. So the verbs of stance become are describing a 1-dimensional path, so to speak. The verbs of motion are (most of them) describing a 2-dimensional path, motion along a line. (The line does not have to be straight, which kinda introduces the third dimension, but in the sense that topologically a donut is the same as a coffee mug, a path that isn’t straight can be considered straight and therefore 2-dimensional for the purposes of these verbs.) The two verbs that don’t fit are evi and ɛmɛmɛ, which really describe a 3-dimensional path. evi means to move outwards in all directions or to expand, and ɛmɛmɛ is its opposite. It might help to think of these as image schemas rather than as anything literally real. I’ve attached some gifs to illustrate (A is subject, S is point of origin or source, and D is end-point or destination).

1D: 1D 2D: 2D-looped 3D: 3D-looped

So, there we go, that’s what the verbs really are doing. Which means I need to re-think them.

Currently, I have 3 verbs of stance–one for points, one for items with a strong horizontal dimension, and one for items with a strong vertical dimension. I also have a negative verb that negates all three. It occurs to me that with this new scheme, all I really need is the one for points, as it is describing a path that is a point. The negative might be considered a 0-dimensional verb if you like. 🙂

Where this gets interesting is with the remaining 2D verbs. Tɨŋi would be the prototypical 2D verb. But what about the rest of them? Ono is essentially the opposite of tɨŋi in that there is still a straight path but going in the opposite direction. On the other hand, maybe anything that I would use ono for can be done with tɨŋi or ɛmɛmɛ. Pɛsi is tɨŋi with no destination because the assumed destination is simply “away”. Maybe pɛsi is a negative 2D verb? Duso involves moving back and forth, or going around and coming back to the beginning. Again, not sure what to do with this. Aŋi and kiɬi, though, both explicitly involve a 2D path through a 3D space. That is, aŋi differs from tɨŋi in that the destination is the journey rather than the end-point of the journey. With kiɬi, the destination is something that has been passed by or missed. Does that make aŋi and kiɬi 2.5-dimensional?

One interesting twist to all of this is that I mark evidentiality on the verb. For some reason, cultures that have grammatical evidentiality prefer statements that convey eyewitnessed knowledge to statements that don’t. So, rather than saying “He didn’t go to the store.” (which is an inference, really, after all how do you know where all he didn’t go?) they prefer to say “He is not at the store.” (if the speaker is in the store). So that means that the preferred negative of a 2D verb is probably a 1D (or zero-D) negative.

Anyway, as I said, I need to re-think things.

Regarding nouns, my noun classes sort of fall into the group of things that don’t move on their own (most inanimates), the things that move linearly (most animates), and the things that expand, contract, or are emitted (light, sound, possibly the ocean with its tides, ideas, ???). This roughly corresponds to existing class iii, class i & ii together, and class iv. Currently I have a way of conveying class iii as linearly motile, and class i and ii as non-motile, but what about that third dimension? Do I use a different form for a rock that is stationary, a rock that is moving as a projectile (or seemingly on its own like the ones in Death Valley), and a rock that is growing/expanding (or exploding?). Maybe this 3-way difference would be better marked on an animate noun – one that is still, one in motion, and one that is growing. On the other hand, the difference between moving in 2D and in 3D can be conveyed by the verb, so maybe it doesn’t need to be marked. Something to think about anyway.

Another thing I like to have in my languages is some way to convey volitionality. It occurs to me that the evidential system can already do this: it is common in evidential languages to use a non-eyewitness evidential for things the subject did non-volitionally. So, “I|He jumped down” would use the eyewitness evidential, but “I|He fell down” might use an inferred (it seemed to me) or reported (I’m told) evidential. (And both of those would use the same 2D verb conveying a linear path in a downward direction.)

And lets not get started on dimensionality above 3D.