Continuing with Gary’s list:
- Once wild animals lived here.
Well, “wild animals lived here” is a simple sentence. However, “live somewhere” as in dwell is one of those concepts that tends to be idiomatic in other languages. Of course, I already sort of came up with this in the Babel text, using
É›lÉ›na mesÉ¨dÉ›n mÉ›haŋi dÉ›spi.
The people make settlements on the plain.
The adverb mÉ›ya, when prefixed to aŋi means that D dÉ›spi is made out of A mesÉ¨dÉ›n. However, for this sentence we are going to use ko “home” instead of dÉ›spÉ›dan “settlement”, which means that “here” is essentially the subject of the SL sentence, and “wild animals” is the source.
Regarding “here”, the usual word is susi, but susi cannot be used as a subject of a sentence. 🙁 But, there is another word, sota “place” which can be used. It is a class IV abstract noun, so the motile singular is soteya. We might even make it more specific, saying deya soteya “this place”.
The word for animal is paki, pakina in the motile plural. It can mean any kind of animal, including pets, so we need the adjective “wild” to modify it. That would be gyÉ›ttaÉ¬, making pakina gyÉ›ttaÉ¬na the source, deya soteya the subject, mÉ›haŋi the verb, and ko the destination. Now all that is left is that pesky “once”.
“Once” to me implies that either the animals lived here long ago, or that however long ago it was, it will not happen again. The adverb tilÉ›nya mostly sort of covers that. Plus, we need the evidential dÉ›stÉ› to explain how we know this.
24. pakina gyÉ›ttaÉ¬na deya soteya mÉ›honnÉ¨t ko tilÉ›nya dÉ›stÉ›.
Wild animals once made home(s) here. (I’m told)
24. iēlte ñatta jamāra þō ā japāci;
- wild animals
Wild animals once lived here.