|A. auxiliary V-dape
|B. auxiliary V-seppe
||fail to V
||S stumble, trip
Dape and seppe occur only as auxiliaries, except for dape-seppe ‘stumble, trip’, which is the only time dape appears as a primary verb. The obstacle stumbled upon or tripped over is marked with su.
Dape as an auxiliary can also mean ‘back, behind, after’ as in
||A follow, go after O
||A say back, reply to O
Dape is derived from da plus the particle pe ‘from’.
Seppe is used to mean try but fail to V, or intend but then end up not V-ing. Some less transparent constructions are:
||S avoid, shun, fail to go (AVOIDED=du)
Seppe is derived from sede and pe.
Sentences with dape.
Sentences with seppe.
||A make O fall
||A make O rise; A raise, lift O
||S fall and fall
||S rise and rise
Data is da plus the obsolete particle ta ‘down’ and dello is degi plus the obsolete particle lo ‘up’. Data implies a non-volitional downward movement in contrast to nota. Dello is neutral in volitionality, probably because of gravity. It takes effort to overcome gravity. Again, location wherein the motion is taking place is marked with su and destinations are marked with du.
Neither verb uses the auxiliaries nolo or nota.
Dello can be compounded with the body part instrumentals kuwu ‘hands’ and bana ‘feet’ to produce:
||A pick up O
||A kick (up) O
Dello can also be compounded with doŋi ‘eye’ to produce:
||S wake up; S open one’s eyes
Doŋi-dello is always intransitive. It is possible that kuwu-dello and bana-dello have intransitive forms ‘raise one’s hand(s)’ and ‘lift one’s foot’, but I’ve had no cause to use those yet, so maybe not.
Sentences with data.
Sentences with dello.
Tomorrow: dape and seppe.
||S climb, ascend
||S descend (volitionally)
||A make O climb, ascend
||A make O descend
||CS be more ATTRIBUTE
||CS be less ATTRIBUTE
|G. auxiliary V-nolo
||V more (and more), increasingly V
|H. auxiliary V-nota
||V less (and less), decreasingly V
||S climb higher and higher
||S descend lower and lower
These two verbs, opposites, pattern together. Nolo is no plus the obsolete particle lo ‘up’ and nota is no plus the obsolete particle ta ‘down’. Nota is never used to mean ‘fall’ as it implies deliberate descent. Nolo likewise denotes deliberate ascent.
As auxiliaries, neither is used with the verbs of stance. Nor are they used with each other.
Sentences with nolo as a main verb.
Sentences with nota as a main verb.
Sentences with nolo as an auxiliary verb.
Sentences with nota as an auxiliary verb.
Tomorrow: data and dello.
||S come, go along
||A send for, summon O
|C. auxiliary V-no
||come and V
|D. imperative no!
No is a single-syllable verb meaning ‘come’. In the rare cases when it is not followed by an auxiliary nor has a rational animate subject, the form of no is nodu. Arguments for no are the same as with da. The main difference between da and no is deictic. No implies motion towards the speaker or observer. It is also used for motion along a path parallel to something else.
no can be used as an auxiliary to mean ‘come and V’. Like da, it is not used with the verbs of stance (sede, tene, degi) nor with any verbs denoting mental activity (dullo, callo, canno). It is also not used with da or with itself.
Kuno-no, rather than meaning ‘come and get’ is used to mean ‘come with’ or ‘bring’.
Imperative no! is a single syllable word, which is allowed as it is considered an interjection. It can be appended to a verb phrase to make it imperative. For example: Kuno=di=nu, no! ‘You get the thing, do!’ or ‘Get the thing!’. This is more polite than using da! It might be used by a parent towards a child, for example, or an elder person towards a much younger person. It has the urgency of da! but is tempered by affection.
Sentences with no as a main verb.
Sentences with no as an auxiliary verb.
Sentences with no! the interjection.
Tomorrow: nolo and nota.
||A send O; A make O go
|C. auxiliary V-da
||go and V
|D. imperative da!
Da is a single-syllable verb meaning ‘go’. In the rare cases when it is not followed by an auxiliary nor has a rational animate subject, the form of da is dodu. Arguments for da include the subject, the person or thing going, and the following possible peripheral phrases: the point of origin marked with pe, the destination marked with du, a companion marked with ne, a path of travel also marked with ne, and a location wherein this is all taking place marked with su.
Da can be used as an auxiliary to mean go and V. It is not used with the verbs of stance (sede, tene, degi) nor with any verbs denoting mental activity (dullo, callo, canno). It can be used with itself da-da, which can mean ‘travel’ (with an A set subject) or ‘wander’ (with an O set subject).
Dunno-da ‘go and see’ generally is used to mean ‘hunt’, and kuno-da, rather than meaning ‘go and get’ is used to mean ‘go with’ or ‘take’.
Imperative da! is a single syllable word, which is allowed as it is considered an interjection. It can be appended to a verb phrase or a clause to make it imperative. For example: Kuno=di=nu, da! ‘You get the thing, do!’ or ‘Get the thing!’. This is the most basic and strongest form of imperative, and is not considered to be polite. It would never be used towards someone one has any respect for.
Sentences with da as a main verb.
Sentences with da as an auxiliary verb.
Sentences with da! the interjection.
|A. se=A=O X
||A say (to O) X
||S speak, make a communicative noise
Se means ‘say’, and the subject is the person speaking. The object of se is always the audience. X can be reported speech or a topic. Reported speech is in a complement clause. The complement clause is marked by dodu only when it is indirect speech. Direct quotes do not use a complement clause marker. The topic is referenced in a peripheral phrase marked with ne. The O argument, the audience, can be elided, though it usually isn’t.
Se also has an intransitive construction that refers to making a communicative noise of some sort. Again, the subject is the speaker or the noise-maker. If an audience is needed, it is put in a peripheral phrase marked with du. Again, the topic of the speaking can be referenced in a peripheral phrase marked with ne.
Xunumi-Wudu does not allow regular spoken words to have only a single syllable. However, since se has to have a subject enclitic, and since things that speak tend to be rational animates, this is not an issue. When se takes an auxiliary, it forms a compound with the auxiliary, se-sede ‘be talking’ so that the full word is no longer a single syllable.
Sentences with se.
||A think on O; A think that CoCl
||A feel O; A feel that CoCl
|C. ADJ canno=S
||S feel ADJ
||A expect (of O) dodu CoCl
|E. auxiliary V-callo
||seem to V, almost V
Callo comes from casa ‘belly’ and the obsolete particle lo ‘up to’. Canno comes from casa ‘belly’ and the verb no ‘come’. Both verbs cover mental activity, and differ in that callo denotes volitional or deliberate mental activity, and canno non-volitional or non-deliberate mental activity. So, while callo generally means ‘think’ and canno ‘feel’, daydreaming or the sort of non-volitional thinking that we all sometimes engage in would be described with canno.
Both callo and canno can take an O that is a noun phrase or a complement clause. The complement clause will not take an overt marker. Only with callo-canno, which has a built-in and occasionally elided O uses a complement clause with the complement clause marker dodu, derived from da ‘this’ and du ‘to, for’.
Canno has an alternate construction C, which is only used with adjectives (or adverbs) like gehe ‘good’ and basa ‘bad’. In these cases, since the expected O is an adjective, there is no O clitic on the verb, making it an intransitive construction. Generally the subject of canno is marked with an O clitic, since feeling is non-volitional. If the source or cause of the feeling is expressed, it is put in a peripheral phrase marked with pe.
Sentences with canno.
Sentences with callo as a main verb.
Sentences with callo as an auxiliary verb.
||A know of, learn O; A know, learn that CoCl
|B. auxiliary V-dullo
||be able to V
Dullo means ‘know’. It can also mean ‘teach’ with causative auxiliaries. Its object can be a full complement clause (CoCl) rather than a noun phrase. Dullo‘s complement clause is not marked by any sort of marker.
Dullo comes from an obsolete noun dunu ‘eyes’ and the obsolete particle lo ‘up to’.
Auxiliary dullo can be used with any verb where it makes semantic sense.
Dullo-dullo uses both senses and means ‘can learn’.
Sentences with dullo as a main verb.
Sentences with dullo as an auxiliary verb.
Tomorrow: callo and canno. Two verbs!
||A have, get O
||CS become (CC, adjective)
Transitive kuno is derived from ku(wu) ‘hand’ and the verb no ‘come’. Its basic meaning is ‘get’ or ‘have’ as in physically possess. It can be used as a copula meaning ‘become’.
Kuno can also be used for sensory input like camme. Unlike camme, it is neutral in regards to deliberateness and volition. Also, since dunno exists, it is not used with doŋi. It is commonly used with sada and giŋi for hearing and smelling/tasting. Its negative is also the common negative of the camme-based verb phrases, primarily because one cannot easily judge if someone is deliberately not listening vs not hearing.
The causative forms of kuno mean ‘give’.
Sentences with kuno.
Dunno means ‘see’, and contrasts with doŋi-camme ‘deliberately look at/watch O’ in that it is neutral with regards to deliberateness or volition. This makes dunno the more usual verb for ‘see’, though constructions with camme and with kuno (tomorrow) can be used for hearing and other forms of sensing.
Dunno-dunno, reduplicated dunno, means ‘see and see’ or ‘search for O’.
Dunno comes from an obsolete noun dunu ‘eyes’ and the verb no ‘come’ (which we will cover later, of course).
Modo-dunno incorporates the noun modo ‘moon’ to mean ‘dream’ or ‘see via a moon’. Unlike its base verb, modo-dunno is intransitive. The S argument usually comes from the O set, since dreaming is not considered to be volitional. Using an A clitic would imply that the subject is a shaman deliberately courting a vision.
Sentences with dunno.