sede, part 2

C. sede=CS CS is (CC, adjective, peripheral phrase)
D. auxiliary V-sede V-ing

As a copula sede means ‘be’ and expresses identity: CS is CC; attribution: CS is adjective; assocation: CS is with ASSOCIATION=ne; and location: CS is at LOCATION=su. The CC and adjective arguments tend to come before the verb, and are not referenced within the verb phrase. The CS argument is always marked with the A set of pronominal clitics.

As an auxiliary, sede marks progressive aspect.

Sentences with sede as a main verb.

Sentences with sede as an auxiliary verb.

Sede as a copula and as an auxiliary is restricted to class I, rational animate nouns. Xunumi-Wudu has four main noun classes: class I, rational animates i.e. people, spirits, deities; class II, other animates, such as animals, trees, some natural phenomena; class III, edible and potable items, which generally also exist in class II or IV, but are marked with a different O clitic; and class IV, everything else, with subclasses.

The classes are distinguished by the use of different third person O clitics for class I, II, III, and IV. Class I A and O arguments are often tagged with deictic clitics, and these are used in place of the third person class I A and O clitics. Here is a list of all the A and O clitics:

A clitics O clitics
singular plural singular plural
first person le mi ce cena
first + second ñe te ño ñona
second person di ja ŋa ŋana
deictic here da dana mo mona
deictic there sa sana be bena
deictic yon ke kena yo yona
class I ŋe
class II ma
class III go
class IV nu

Tomorrow: tene.