## anrÄ“spe

anrÄ“spe

Continuing with the first sentence of 18th Conlang Relay Text:

Ã±i jakÄellÄ«Ã± jarÄ“spe sÅ« janÅ«wa Ä«;

The next word is the stative noun anrÄ“spe in inanimate singular to modify jakÄellÄ«Ã±. anrÄ“spe refers to motion in place, and does not further specify what type of motion, only that something is in one place and there is motion. Ã±i jakÄellÄ«Ã± jarÄ“spe then is saying that the kÄellÄ«Ã± has changed its state to moving-in-place. Or, “the kÄellÄ«Ã± was stirring”.

## ÄÃ±, rÄjÄÃ±, & rÅ«jÄÃ±

ÄÃ±

The modifier ÄÃ± is related to the word jÄÃ±a, “middle”, So, ÄÃ± generally concerns itself with middle-ness. Combined with the directional prepositions, rÄ and rÅ«, the concept becomes less clear. For example, rÄ NP ÄÃ± means, predictably, into the middle of NP or amid/amidst/among NP. If the NP is a large area, however, it can mean throughout NP. rÅ« NP ÄÃ±, in contrast, means around NP or surrounding NP. So, with rÄ, ÄÃ± denotes a space (NP) and the thing spoken of is inside that space, not near an edge, and possibly in multiple spots inside that space. With rÅ«, ÄÃ± again denotes a space (NP), but now the thing spoken of is specifically not inside that space, but rather outside of it, at multiple spots outside of it.

rÄjÄÃ±

rÄjÄÃ± is rÄ NP ÄÃ± without a specified location, and so means ‘to the middle’, ‘to among’, or ‘throughout’.

rÅ«jÄÃ±

Likewise rÅ«jÄÃ± is rÅ« NP ÄÃ± without a specified location, and so means ‘surrounding’ or ‘around’.

Examples:

Ã±amma sÄim makkepÅlien rÄ anmÄrwi ÄÃ± pÄ“xa
They became scattered throughout the world.
[pÄ“xa is there for emphasis]

Ã±i sÄim rÅ« sÄen ÄÃ±;
They gathered around him.

Note: That’s it for motion and direction, for now anyway. Feel free to ask questions about anything I didn’t cover. Next up, kinship and clan words, for a bit. After that, I’m not sure. Leave me a suggestion.

## Älme, rÄjÄlme, & rÅ«jÄlme

Älme

The modifier Älme is related to the nounÂ jÄlme, which means ‘ford, crossing’. So the central definition of Älme denotes crossing something long and narrow from one side to the other, very much like ‘across’. Älme has expanded its range to include crossing any area, from one side of the area to the other side of the area. One border to the area must also be crossed. So one can start inside the area (at the edge, but inside) and cross to outside the area, or from outside the area to the opposite inside edge of the area, or from outside the area through the area and across the next border to outside the area again.

rÄ NP Älme is across NP and rÅ« NP Älme is from across NP.

rÄjÄlme

rÄjÄlme is rÄ NP Älme without a specified location, and so means ‘across’.

rÅ«jÄlme

Likewise rÅ«jÄlme is rÅ« NP Älme without a specified location, and so means ‘from across’.

Ã±i jahÄÃ¾a rÄ jatÅna Älme tÅ-kÄ“Ã±;
Why did the “chicken” cross the road?

tÅ Ã±i rÄjakiÄ“;
To get to the other side.

## kiÄ“, rÄjakiÄ“, & rÅ«jakiÄ“

kiÄ“

The modifier kiÄ“ refers to the observer’s other side of something, so something behind something else. This makes kiÄ“ partially synonymous with Ä«r. The difference is that kiÄ“ refers to the observer’s position, and Ä«r does not. If something has an obvious back, then use Ä«r, otherwise use kiÄ“. So, rÄ NP kiÄ“ is to the other side of NP and rÅ« NP kiÄ“ is from the other side of NP.

rÄjakiÄ“

rÄjakiÄ“ is rÄ NP kiÄ“ without a specified location, and so means ‘to the other side’.

rÅ«jakiÄ“

Likewise rÅ«jakiÄ“ is rÅ« NP kiÄ“ without a specified location, and so means ‘from the other side’.

## nÅ«, rÄjanÅ«, & rÅ«janÅ«

nÅ«

The modifier nÅ« refers to the observer’s side of something, so something in front of something else. This makes nÅ« partially synonymous with hÄl. The difference is that nÅ« refers to the observer’s position, and hÄl does not. If something has an obvious front, then use hÄl, otherwise use nÅ«. So, rÄ NP nÅ« is to this side of NP and rÅ« NP nÅ« is from this side of NP.

rÄjanÅ«

rÄjanÅ« is rÄ NP nÅ« without a specified location, and so means ‘to this side’.

rÅ«janÅ«

Likewise rÅ«janÅ« is rÅ« NP nÅ« without a specified location, and so means ‘from this side’.

## Ä“mma & rÅ«jÄ“mma

Ä“mma

The modifier Ä“mma refers to the outside of something. So, rÅ« NP Ä“mma is from the outside of NP or out of NP. The expected expression rÄ NP Ä“mma is not used. The word Ä“mma is related to yesterday’s word mÄ“.

rÅ«jÄ“mma

Likewise rÅ«jÄ“mma is rÅ« NP Ä“mma without a specified location, and so means ‘out’. The expected expression rÄjÄ“mma is not used.

## mÄ“ & rÄjamÄ“

mÄ“

The modifier mÄ“ refers to the inside of something. So, rÄ NP mÄ“ is into NP. The expected expression rÅ« NP mÄ“ is not used.

rÄjamÄ“

rÄjamÄ“ is rÄ NP mÄ“ without a specified location, and so means ‘into’. The expected expression rÅ«jamÄ“ is not used.

## tÄ, rÄjatÄ, & rÅ«jatÄ

tÄ

The modifier tÄ refers to the bottom of something. So, rÄ NP tÄ is to the bottom of NP or under NP and rÅ« NP tÄ is from the bottom of NP.

rÄjatÄ

rÄjatÄ is rÄ NP tÄ without a specified location, and so means ‘to the bottom’ or ‘under’.

rÅ«jatÄ

Likewise rÅ«jatÄ is rÅ« NP tÄ without a specified location, and so means ‘from the bottom’ or ‘from under’.

## Ål, rÄjÅl, & rÅ«jÅl

Ål

The modifier Ål refers to the top of something. This is related to the word sÅlle ‘head’. RÄ NP Ål is to the top of NP or over NP and rÅ« NP Ål is from the top of NP or from above NP.

rÄjÅl

rÄjÅl is rÄ NP Ål without a specified location, and so means ‘to the top’ or ‘over’.

rÅ«jÅl

Likewise rÅ«jÅl is rÅ« NP Ål without a specified location, and so means ‘from the top’ or ‘from above’.

## Ä«r, rÄjÄ«r, & rÅ«jÄ«r

Ä«r

The modifier Ä«r refers to the back of something. This is the same root as sÄ«ra. So, rÄ NP Ä«r is to the back of NP or to behind NP and rÅ« NP Ä«r is from the back of NP or from behind NP.

rÄjÄ«r

rÄjÄ«r is rÄ NP Ä«r without a specified location, and so means ‘to the back’.

rÅ«jÄ«r

Likewise rÅ«jÄ«r is rÅ« NP Ä«r without a specified location, and so means ‘from the back’ or ‘from behind’.