This is very simply the 2nd person singular pronoun. Now, for the LCC2 Relay Text, concerning a talking rock. Sentence #2:

ē ñalla jakīþa jatēnnā rā lekū mē ōl aþ telme ien la riēn makīþa matēnnā kēñ;

This has all been blogged before (or just now). Three notes of interest, however.

1) ñalla [x] rā lekū mē is the circumlocution used to indicate that one has taken something [x] into one’s hand. The [x] is jakīþa jatēnnā, “the talking rock”. ōl is used to indicate upwards motion, so “took up into my hand”.

2) In the first clause, the talking rock is inanimate singular. In the second clause, which asks “Are you a talking rock?”, the talking rock is animate singular. This is called raising to animacy and happens when one imbues something with personhood, for example by talking to it as if it could answer back. Lowering something to inanimacy happens when one is removing personhood from something or someone. Not a nice thing to do.

3) We discussed reduced pronouns earlier this week and I mentioned that it is considered polite to reduce the 1st person pronoun. It is exceedingly familiar and thus impolite to strangers to reduce the second person pronoun.

ē ñalla jakīþa jatēnnā rā lekū mē ōl aþ telme ien la riēn makīþa matēnnā kēñ;
And I took the rock up into my hand and then said to it, “Are you a talking rock?”




Still on the seventh sentence of the Babel text:

il tamma ien ē pa mēli anānīke ī pa sāim antaxōni ān tēna ī la ankāe ancēji ja ñatta rēha pa jāo jānne;

rēha is a future marker. So the subordinate clause ja ñatta rēha translates as “that they will do” and modifies ankāe ancēji, the “doable deeds that they will do”. And this entire noun phrase ankāe ancēji ja ñatta rēha is the object of la and thus the next noun phrase jāo jānne is an attribute of this one. Got that? la NP1 pa NP2 = NP2 is an attribute of NP1.

“Then He said: the people have unity and they have only one language and the doable deeds that they will do…”




snow, frozen precipitation. Also snow on the ground, an expanse of snow. There is a separate word for “frost”, but otherwise any snow on the ground qualifies as anrōli.




made of or from opal (Hydrated silica. SiO2·nH2O).

Names of substances, including minerals, are generally given in the stative, as they are considered to be attributes. A piece of opal would be referred to with the singular jarākerel.

pa jakīþa anrākerel;
The rock contains opal.

More literally, the rock has an attribute: opal.

la jakīþa jarākerel;
The rock is opal. (or, The opal rock is.)

A picture (by me, taken in Australia):


marēþa and jarēþa



someone who is traveling, such as on a business trip, or on vacation, maybe even to Australia.

il jaliþa ñi liēn marēþa;
Today I am a traveler.



a journey or trip.

il jaliþa ñalla jarēþa;
Today I am making a journey.

Tomorrow’s post might be delayed by travel and/or jet-lag.




a person who is engaged in their time of wandering, traditionally a year-long endeavor. Generally, this is the time period between childhood and adulthood, or the time period at the beginning of adulthood. However, some people become marāona more than once in their lives, and some stay marāona for more than the year or so that is traditional.




dressed as one ought to be, with deliberate care and attention to detail, so kempt, properly dressed and decorated. Again, a positive trait.

This is related to the word for bead (janīsa) and to the cultural habit of wearing beads in one’s hair that display one’s proper rank and status.