Test Sentences, 4

The next four sentences in Gary’s list have people shouting:

  1. All the people shouted.
  2. Some of the people shouted.
  3. Many of the people shouted twice.
  4. Happy people often shout.

And they have quantifiers!

People is a class II noun, and since it is the source in all 4 sentences, it’ll be in the motile plural form É›lÉ›na. The shout, though, is a class IV noun, also in the motile plural: umɨdiya. Shouting uses the same verb as shining, evi, because with shouting, the noise is moving out in all directions, just as with shining.

11. nadna ɛlɛna umɨdiya tavi bala.

nadna
all.pl
all
ɛlɛna
person.MTpl
people
umɨdiya
shout.MTpl
shouts
tavi
evi.PRF
moved out
bala
NVS
(I heard it)

12. amba ɛlɛna umɨdiya tavi bala.

amba
some
some
ɛlɛna
person.MTpl
people
umɨdiya
shout.MTpl
shouts
tavi
evi.PRF
moved out
bala
NVS
(I heard it)

13. aŋo ɛlɛna umɨdiya tavi iyɛnɛ bala.

aŋo
many
many
ɛlɛna
person.MTpl
people
umɨdiya
shout.MTpl
shouts
tavi
evi.PRF
moved out
iyɛnɛ
twice
twice
bala
NVS
(I heard it)

14. ɛlɛna andabalna umɨdiya evna ɨnavi dɛstɛ.

ɛlɛna
person.MTpl
people
andabalna
happy.MTpl
happy
umɨdiya
shout.MTpl
shouts
evna
evi.ITR
move out habitually
ɨnavi
often
often
dɛstɛ
REP
(I’m told)

sodna-lÉ›ni has evidentials. The visual evidential is zero marked, which is why they haven’t appeared until now. The visual evidential is for things one knows because one has seen or witnessed the information in the sentence. bala is for things one knows because one has heard, smelled, or otherwise sensed, but not actually seen, the information in the sentence. Shouting would involve hearing rather than seeing, so it is the appropriate evidential for 11-13. But the statement that happy people often shout is one of those things that is generally learned from an authority of some sort, so it uses the reported evidential dÉ›stÉ›.

In KÄ“len:

11. tatta jarūlōn ke mēli nāra;

satta
SE.PAST+3PC.SRC
jarūlōn
shout
ke
SRC
mēli
people
nāra
all

12. tatta jarūlōn ke mēli pē;

satta
SE.PAST+3PC.SRC
jarūlōn
shout
ke
SRC
mēli
people
pē
some

13. tatta jarūlōn ke mēli nā il ēnne;

satta
SE.PAST+3PC.SRC
jarūlōn
shout
ke
SRC
mēli
people
nā
many
il Ä“nne
twice

The paucal source and singular shout in 11-13 says that the people shouted together at the same time.

14. saxxa jarūlōni ke mēli mālni;

saxxa
SE+3PL.SRC
jarūlōn
shouts
ke
SRC
mēli
people
mālni
happy

Test Sentences, 3

The next set of sentences in Gary’s list are still discussing the sun:

  1. The sun shines brightly.
  2. The bright sun shines.
  3. The sun is rising now.

OK, sentence 8 adds an adverb, 9 an adjective. 10 is another time distinction, and a change of subject (in sodna-lɛni anyways).

8. loho logɨdiya evi loya.

loho
sun.MTsg
from the sun
logɨdiya
light.MTpl
light
evi
evi.IMP
is moving out
loya
brightly
brightly

9. loho lo logɨdiya evi.

loho
sun.MTsg
from the sun
lo
bright.MTsg
bright
logɨdiya
light.MTpl
light
evi
evi.IMP
is moving out

The adjective lo is modifying loho because a) adjectives follow nouns, and b) it’s also in the motile singular.

10. ala loho tɨŋi olaya.

ala
now
now
loho
sun.MTsg
sun
tɨŋi
tɨŋi.IMP
is moving
olaya
upwards
upwards

Look, a new verb! tɨŋi is actually the most basic verb in sodna-lɛni. It means to move (along a path) possibly towards a destination, possibly with a point of origin, but neither of those things are required.

olaya is a directional adverb. In my published grammar, I say that directional adverbs can be prefixed to the verbs. I have decided that olaya and tadya “downwards” can no longer be prefixed. The others still can.

ala is another time adverb, and generally appears in the source slot.

In KÄ“len:

8. la anlōki anlūi;

la
LA
anlōki
sunlight
anlūi
bright

“The sunlight is bright.”

9. la malō malū;

la
LA
malō
sun
malū
bright

“The sun is bright.” KÄ“len doesn’t have adverbs, just adjectives.

10. āl ñi malō rājōl;

āl
now
ñi
NI
malō
sun
rājōl
to the top

“The sun is rising now.”

Test Sentences, 2

The next set of sentences in Gary’s list are:

  1. The sun shone.
  2. The sun will shine.
  3. The sun has been shining.
  4. The sun is shining again.
  5. The sun will shine tomorrow.

OK. More tense and aspect distinctions. sodna-lÉ›ni doesn’t actually distinguish tense (this is an experiment on my part), which means that there is no difference in 3 and 5.

3|5. loho logɨdiya tavi.

loho
sun.MTsg
from the sun
logɨdiya
light.MTpl
light
tavi
evi.PRF
ceased moving out

4. loho logɨdiya evi dɛga.

loho
sun.MTsg
from the sun
logɨdiya
light.MTpl
light
evi
evi.IMP
is moving out
dɛga
FUT
in the future

6. loho logɨdiya evi iyɛ iyɛ.

loho
sun.MTsg
from the sun
logɨdiya
light.MTpl
light
evi
evi.IMP
is moving out
iyÉ› iyÉ›
again
again

7. loho logɨdiya evi dɛga lannal.

loho
sun.MTsg
from the sun
logɨdiya
light.MTpl
light
evi
evi.IMP
is moving out
dɛga
FUT
in the future
lannal
tomorrow
tomorrow

tavi is the perfect form of evi.

dÉ›ga is the future modal, and it denotes certainty in one’s prediction.

iyÉ› iyÉ› and lannal are both time adverbs.

In KÄ“len, again 3 & 5 are the same:

3|5. te anlōki;

la
LA.PAST
existed
anlōki
sunlight
sunlight

4. la anlōki rēha;

la
LA
exists
anlōki
sunlight
sunlight
rēha
FUT
in the future

6. la anlōki ī;

la
LA
exists
anlōki
sunlight
sunlight
Ä«
again
again

7. la anlōki lānnāl;

la
LA
exists
anlōki
sunlight
sunlight
lānnāl
tomorrow
tomorrow

(And, yes, the words for ‘tomorrow’ in both languages are related.)

Test Sentences, 1

The first two sentences in Gary’s list are:

  1. The sun shines.
  2. The sun is shining.

Now, for me, the difference between the two sentences is that the first is in the habitual and the second is in the progressive. OK. No problem. sodna-lɛni makes that distinction:

1. loho logɨdiya evna.

loho
sun.MTsg
from the sun
logɨdiya
light.MTpl
light
evna
evi.ITR
moves out iteratively

2. loho logɨdiya evi.

loho
sun.MTsg
from the sun
logɨdiya
light.MTpl
light
evi
evi.IMP
is moving out

logɨdiya is the class IV noun meaning ‘light, rays of light’ in the motile plural. It’s the subject of both sentences.

loho is the class II noun meaning ‘the sun’ in the motile singular. It acts as the source or point of origin for the subject. It can be motile because class II nouns are higher up in the animacy hierarchy than class IV nouns.

evi is the verb in use. It means that its subject is moving out in all directions from a grammatically required point of origin. In the first sentence evi is in the iterative, and in the second, the imperfect.

In KÄ“len, the two sense are conflated and the easiest way to express the concept is in the sentence:

1|2. la anlōki;

la
LA
exists
anlōki
sunlight
sunlight

I’m back!

Since I last posted on December 16, 2011, I have moved house, settled into a new job, and created a new language. Yes, me, the “one conlang is enough for me” woman, has created a new conlang. What can I say, these things happen.

This is how it happened: I read a blog post online about brain imaging, and then thought about having a language that expressed motion better than KÄ“len does (which admittedly can’t be that hard, KÄ“len doesn’t really express motion very well at all.) What I ended up with is a language that talks about direction and journeys between endpoints and makes extensive use of path metaphors. The appendix of this document has the original email exchange with David, version 1 of the language (now called sodna-lÉ›ni), and a short history of the development of the language. Under Future Developments, I wrote:

More vocabulary. Think about modality, quantifiers, adjectives. Work through Gary Shannon’s list of sentences.

So that’s what I am going to do here: work through Gary’s sentences. In sodna-lÉ›ni, and maybe in KÄ“len, too. To that end, I am changing the name of this blog to something more generic.