In English this time.
This song has been going through my head lately, so I am sharing…
In English this time.
This song has been going through my head lately, so I am sharing…
Of course the one month I forget to check Fiat Lingua on the first is the month David publishes my article.
Also, my biography has changed. Delete the last sentence.
Here is more of the funlang. This time I did the Eye Juggler text from Dirk Elzinga.
OK, so proper names get classifiers, too
And marking plural on the predicate amuses me, so…
And with classifiers that can be used as pronouns, there is no need for separate third person pronouns.
So this is one way to make things less agglutinative – drop a syllable that is identical to the previous syllable. I suppose I should make sure I didn’t forget to do this elsewhere.
This is a new, unnamed funlang. It is an experiment in topic – comment with only intransitive predicates. So each full sentence is only two words and two words only. Pronouns include one that refers to the topic of the previous sentence (SAME) and one that refers to the comment of the previous sentence (COMMENT). It might even be non-recursive, but not being a theoretician, I won’t swear to that.
I like the repetitiveness of otherwise transitive verbs. It amuses me.
I also like the fact that speak and spoken to are different, unrelated words. And that the converse of pick up is be in hand.
I like that pronouns come in two sets: new and previously mentioned. With regular nouns, this is accomplished by using noun plus classifier for a new mention and the classifier only as a previous mention.
I am a bit worried about the lack of clarity in where a quote ends. Adding something like “saying finished” might work, but it would probably involve repeating the noun tani-ya rather than just ya, which I don’t like.
The comment words ought to be less cleanly agglutinative, at least when it comes to multiple suffixes, those should blend a bit more, maybe.
What do you think?
I will do the Eye Juggler next, and then maybe the South Wind and the Sun. Short texts become such long texts that I am not sure I dare tackle the longer texts that I usually use.
While I try to figure out how to present the interlude language – a fun project not meant to be a naturalistic conlang on its own…
Here is a picture of my cat:
That sounds like a translation challenge! In Kenda Soro:
Xuunu Midu consists of three! documents and a torch.
The following non-ascii characters appear in the torch: ñ (n-tilde) ŋ (eng) ʃ (esh) ʒ (ezh).
Lononne wunnu, taatada deŋgada genne datase. Sejewa yeelele yekeke yeelele deŋga pideli genne monna setasa. Dadannewu sejewali nee yekekeli nee golinnestebo.
Deŋga bududa ceesu lañjawa ceñena gakugesteza xoo yebeda degisteze.
Dadastewa cumona canoba, tene ceñele niikena pee xooʒolinnenosteba nolo dodo. Gakugestewa ceñena soo danna doñjame kundebaya. Yebeda cendo danna daññesa nono.
Ceñena caskujeba, lañja yeejedi soo deŋga yeejedi soo danna seezaya. Yeejena benna kaakadesaya.
Deŋga tonoli noojeze; lañjaka pee yebeda haŋŋido kiidoki dase. Dadastewa cumona gakugestewa ceñena soo doñjamespezaya.
Wospe deŋgada yekekeli cendo tanno.
Congratulations, you are the first person to see my new language, called Xuunu Midu. It is a daughter language, mumblety generations later, of Xunumi Wudu. Nouns have fused with their classifiers and then been reinterpreted to contain noun class markers. Verbs have simplified their auxiliaries into new aspect/tense markers, and the evidentials have fused with the enclitic pronouns and then been simplified into something an 18th century armchair linguist might call decorative.* Pronouns are now explicitly stated when needed. The deictic tags have become a third person animate pronoun set. And consonants and sometimes entire syllables have disappeared leaving behind lengthened vowels.
*I have seen an Aztec grammar that calls evidentials ornamental.
A note on pronounciation. Most letters are more or less IPA. Except, c and j are palatal stops or alveolar-palatal affricates. y is therefore the palatal glide. ñ is the palatal nasal. x is the palatal sibilant (ʃ). Long vowels are written double. z is actually an allophone of s (and ʒ of x) but I am writing them separately because in another few generations, after initial s becomes h, they will become separate phonemes.
Anyway, I am going to mix grammar and vocabulary a bit.
cano think or feel or wonder or otherwise engage in mental activity
caskuje be angry
ceñe adult female person, woman
cumu adult male person, man, becomes cumo in plural
dada travel or wander
data fall, come down
degi be, recline
doñjame watch, observe
gakuge wash (transitive), bathe oneself (intransitive)
goli long time, a long period of time
kaakade help, assist with a task
kiido rock, stone
kunde want, wish, need
niike nearby, next, neighbor
nooje change, be changed or altered
pide edge, bank or a river
see talk to, speak to, say to
sejewa finishing, west
seta stop, pause in a journey
tene each with a singular noun; every, all with plural nouns
tono path, road
wospe from then on, since then
yebe pool, lake
yeeje spirit, deity
yeele person, adult person
The above may or may not take the following suffixes:
These are closer to the word stem than other suffixes.
=nne turns a noun or adjective or adverb into a verb or a copula; turns a verb into a noun before adding a noun class marker
=no aspectual suffix for becoming, expanding, or contracting. Used with adverbs nolo/nota for more/less so of a quality
=ññe aspectual suffix for starting. Used with adverb nono
=spe aspectual suffix for failing at an intended task
=stewa turns a verb into an adjective describing something that is in the process of Ving
=wa turns a noun into an adjective of association (of the N)
Tense + Evidentiality + Person suffixes for verbs
=ba recent past + inferred + 3rd person animate or 2nd person plural subject
=baya recent past + inferred + 3rd person animate or 2nd person plural subject + 3rd person animate object
=sa recent past + reported + 3rd person animate or 2nd person plural subject. Also –za
=saya recent past + reported + 3rd person animate or 2nd person plural subject + 3rd person animate object. Also –zaya
=se recent past + reported + 3rd person inanimate subject. Also –ze
=steba current present + inferred + 3rd person animate or 2nd person plural subject
=stebo current present + inferred + 3rd person inanimate subject
=steza current present + reported + 3rd person animate or 2nd person plural subject
=steze current present + reported + 3rd person inanimate subject
=za see =sa
=zaya see =saya
Use of tenses/evidentiality/etc
Recent Past is the default tense. Present will be used when wanting to talk about a current or an imminent happening. There is also a zero marked non-past/present which does not mark evidentiality or person and is used for timeless events and past events continuing into the present and future. That is the base form of the verb, used in auxiliary constructions and so on. Reported is used for facts learned by being told or taught and for indirect speech. Direct is used for eyewitnessed events, events one has participated in, one’s own thoughts and feelings, and for direct speech reports. Inferred is used for supposition, reasoning, and deduction, including the deduction of what other people are thinking and feeling.
Noun Class Markers
These are only used on definite nouns. Indefinite nouns don’t get to have one. A noun can take different noun class markers with a corresponding change in meaning.
=da noun class marker for water
=di noun class marker for a spirit or deity
=ka noun class marker for large things, heaps, mounds, etc.
=ki noun class marker for many large things
=le noun class marker for an adult person
=li noun class marker for abstract nouns, paths, and uncountable or immeasurable things
=na noun class marker for multiple people or spirits, i.e. animate plural
=wu noun class marker for time periods and events
benna 3rd person animate plural object pronoun
danna 3rd person animate plural subject pronoun
monna 3rd person animate plural non-volitional subject pronoun
xoo relative pronoun for places, where
Postpositions and Adverbs
ceesu at, among, in an area
dodo marks a subordinate clause
haŋŋido around, to around
genne along a path, up and/or down a river, along an edge
nee via, along, with
nolo more and more
nono start (redundant with =ññe)
pee from. Denotes a source or cause or a standard of comparison
soo marks an object when an object needs to be marked
wunnu while, during. Marks a subordinate clause of scene-setting
Other Grammatical Quirks
Nouns in juxtaposition, particularly if the first noun has no noun class marker, make a whole – part construction. As in Sylvia kuuwu ‘Sylvia’s hand’.
Animate nouns include those denoting people, spirits and deities, and celestial objects (which are also spirits). Everything else is considered to be inanimate.
XM is SOV where S is a full noun phrase. It is OSV where S is a pronoun. If S is divided from V by enough other stuff, it will sometimes be repeated as a pronoun just before the verb. Redundancy is good! Most of the times peripheral phrases (marked by postpositions) will come between the subject and the verb. Sometimes they won’t.
Also, particularly for verbs derived from time words, sometimes there is no stated subject.
O is not always marked by soo. Some pronouns are inherently O, so soo would be redundant. Redundancy is good, but not in this case. Also, if O is inanimate, it isn’t always marked because of course the inanimate argument will be the object.
Since the language is OV, adjectives come before nouns, relative clauses come before the relative pronoun which comes before the noun, and there are many postpositional modifiers. It is also strongly suffixing. Auxiliary verbs follow main verbs and aspectual adverbs follow verbs.
=== end of torch ===
And since the LCC7 relay isn’t online anywhere that I can find, here is the translation…
My translation of the previous torch:
As the day was growing*, the rain flowed on the river. Because of the water, those from the west and those from the south stopped at the riverbank as well. Travel to the west and to the south would probably be using for a long time. (take a long time)
At the mouth of the river was the lake where the mountain women bathed.
From Kalin: every sister will probably be more beautiful that the one before. However, the man of the quiet mountain was watching the women, and starting towards the lake and the place the women’s husbands will probably begin to hate.
The sisters spoke with the creator of the mountain and were angry. The spirit of the river helped them.
The river changed course and the men who went towards Quiet Mountain failed to watch the women who were bathing.
And the spirit of the mountain covered the lake all the way to the rocks. After which, the river is flowing only to the south.
*I love this metaphor!
My changes for translation purposes and cultural make-sense-of-it-ness:
During the day, rain fell on the river. Those from the west and those from the south stopped at the riverbank. Travel to the west and to the south takes a long time (inference).
At the mouth of the river was the lake where the mountain women bathe.
The traveling men thought, every woman was more beautiful than her neighbors (inference). They wanted to watch the bathing women. They started towards the lake.
The women were angry and spoke with the mountain spirit and the river spirit. The spirits helped them.
Boulders from the mountain went into the lake and the river’s path changed. The traveling men failed to watch the bathing women.
Since then, the river flows south.
Inavewa was very short-lived. One neat thing it had was a verbal paradigm with a 1st/2nd vs 3rd person distinction. There was also a collective vs separated (not collective) plural. It exists in two documents: A google doc and a google sheet with vocabulary.
Since that was so short, here is the song that convinced me that it really was okay to have multiple ŋ’s in a word.
This is all that exists. Think of it as a look at how I brainstorm. Note that I really do make up body parts very early on in the process. Also, this still has evidentiality, which I discarded for KS. The next language will definitely have to have evidentiality!
This is also where I decided to have an ‘r’ already.
1. The sun shines. HABITUAL
2. The sun is shining. PROGRESSIVE
Light is what moves: sele
Motion is OUT, and from contact with the SRC
Sun is the source: loo
Is light, singular, multiple, or collective? Coll.
Tense is non-past
ADV for emphasizing habitual: lena or lenaka
loho=ru sele=viyi lenaka
(actually, can appear in any order)
lenaka lohoru seleviyi
seleviyi lenaka lohoru
3. The sun shone. Distant PAST
5. The sun has been shining. RECENT PAST PROG
loho=ru sele=viyi (Non-past)
4. The sun will shine. FUTURE
7. The sun will shine tomorrow. FUTURE
loho=ru sele=viyi rerehe (in the future)
loho=ru sele=viyi lanalan (tomorrow)
6. The sun is shining again. ITERATIVE
loho=ru sele=viyi rus (again)
8. The sun shines brightly. adverb
9. The bright sun shines. adjective
loho=ru sele=viyi luluvu
luvu loho=ru sele=viyi
loho=ru luvu sele =viyi
If Subject NP is complex:
luvu sele lohoru ma=viyi
ma=viyi loho=ru luvu sele
10. The sun is rising now. PROGRESSIVE/PATH
loho=ŋi sono (up/head) lala (now)
11. All the people shouted.
12. Some of the people shouted.
13. Many of the people shouted twice.
thing moving: sound
source: people (all, some, many)
type of motion: OUT
yele = people
animate nouns get explicit plurals: yele, yena, yeliyi
a shout, a cry, a loud noise: rul
yeleyi=ru rulu=veleyi (all at once)
yena=ru rulu=velana (separately)
all = tene + sg
some = peve + mult
many = nana + mult
tene yele=ru rulu=veleyi/velana
peve yena=ru rulu=veleyi/velana
nana yena=ru rulu=velana yene (twice)
14. Happy people often shout.
hanada yena=ru rulu=velana lenaka
15. The kitten jumped up.
16. The kitten jumped onto the table.
yirele = kitten
motion = VIA and up
yirele=ŋela sono tebe=s (onto the table)
17. My little kitten walked away.
No my in this context
yirele=ŋela peze=no (away) liye=pe > lipe (from me (no contact))
18. It’s raining. & 19. The rain came down.
20. The kitten is playing in the rain.
tatara=nen yirele=ru gire=ŋi
21. The rain has stopped (falling).
tatara=ŋeleyi toro (bana)
22. Soon the rain will stop.
23. I hope the rain stops soon.
tatara=ŋiyi rehe (soon) toro (stop)
diri=me liye=s / les rehe toro tatara=ŋiyi=ru diri=me
24. Once wild animals lived here.
long ago = lilite
wild animals = pake+yi
here = do=s
lived/dwelled = =ye > past.reported = tiyi
dos lilite pakeyi=tiyi (mara=gi (their home))
li / ri / sa / ma / ye
ye – yena – yigi
la – lana – leyi
bo – bona -buyi
te – tena – tiyi
So back in January, I shared this document with John Quijada. It contains the immediate precursor to Kenda Soro, called Kēpa Sōro. Some changes:
For the particles, I specifically got rid of several and renamed =ko to =nda. This was a big improvement, as I have a tendency to add a new particle anytime I have a new relationship to code.
Otherwise the motion particles and the nouns are more or less the same.