Ni aɬudan ni loho Recap

The Story

Tena ni aɬudan ni loho tɛŋɛteya dusena ŋɛha—da daɬo ɛnnavi baŋi tɛndɛ kɨtlɛ na dɛmɛ—na dona nɛn lude kyala dantɨŋe. Hanna oŋŋe ŋyehe: sa tɛndɛ kɨtlɛ na sa donava ludɨdɛn pɛstɛ giya. Aɬudan aŋe kyɛgɛ edatta. Ha dɛlɨdiya evena. Ha dɛlɨdiya evena iyɛ, dona ludɨdɛn ɛmmena o ŋɛha mɛha no. Linoda ha aŋe da mɛddatta. Ala loho aŋe kyɛgɛ edatta. Ha logɨdiya evena, nɛnsi dona ludɨdɛn opɛstɛ noya. Aɬudan deya omɛddustɛ: loho tɛndɛ kɨtlɛ na.

An argument is being had by the north wind and the sun with each other—it is which of the two is stronger—when a traveler with a warm cloak came along. They came to an agreement: he is stronger (=) he who can remove the cloak from the traveler. The north wind is beginning the task. He sends out breaths over and over. The more he sends out breaths, the closer the traveler pulls the cloak to himself. Finally, he (the north wind) is finishing it (the task). Now the sun is beginning the task. She sends out light over and over, and so the traveler takes the cloak off. The north wind says this: the sun is the stronger.

Verbs

We learned nine verbs.

  1. aŋi (S) A →◯ D
  2. daɬa (S) A(D)
  3. duso S A ←→ D
    mɛdduso S A ←→
  4. ɛmɛmɛ S A ↘↙
  5. evi S A ↖↗
  6. pɛsi (S) A →→
  7. sɛdɛ (S) A | (D)
  8. tɛndɛ (S) A(D)
  9. tɨŋi (S) AD
    dantɨŋi A
imperfect [imp] perfect [prf] iterative [itr]
visual [vis] / Ø aŋi otni anna
non-visual [nvs] ambi ombɛ ambena
inferred [inf] alli otɨllɛ allena
reported [rep] aŋe oŋŋe aŋena
visual [vis] / Ø daɬa dattɛ danna
non-visual [nvs] dappi odappɛ dappena
inferred [inf] dalli odallɛ dallena
reported [rep] daɬo odattɛ daɬena
visual [vis] / Ø duso dustɛ dusna
non-visual [nvs] duspi duspɛtɛ duspena
inferred [inf] dusli duslɛtɛ duslena
reported [rep] dusu odustɛ dusena
visual [vis] / Ø mɛdduso mɛddustɛ mɛddusna
non-visual [nvs] mɛdduspi mɛdduspɛtɛ mɛdduspena
inferred [inf] mɛddusli mɛdduslɛtɛ mɛdduslena
reported [rep] mɛddusu omɛddustɛ mɛddusena
visual [vis] / Ø ɛmɛmɛ omɛtɛ ɛmena
non-visual [nvs] ɛmɛbi omɛptɛ ɛmbena
inferred [inf] ɛmɛli omɛttɛ ɛmlena
reported [rep] ɛmɛmo omɛntɛ ɛmmena
visual [vis] / Ø evi tavi evna
non-visual [nvs] ebi otabɛ ebena
inferred [inf] evli otavlɛ evlena
reported [rep] evo otave evena
visual [vis] / Ø pɛsi pɛstɛ pɛsna
non-visual [nvs] pɛspi pɛspɛtɛ pɛspena
inferred [inf] pɛsli pɛslɛtɛ pɛslena
reported [rep] pɛse opɛstɛ pɛsena
visual [vis] / Ø sɛdɛ sɛttɛ sɛnna
non-visual [nvs] sɛppi osɛppɛ sɛppena
inferred [inf] sɛlli osɛllɛ sɛllena
reported [rep] sɛdo osɛttɛ sɛdena
visual [vis] / Ø tɛndɛ tɛttɛ tɛnna
non-visual [nvs] tɛppi otɛppɛ tɛppena
inferred [inf] tɛlli otɛllɛ tɛllena
reported [rep] tɛndo otɛttɛ tɛndena
visual [vis] / Ø tɨŋi otni tɨnna
non-visual [nvs] tɨmbi ombɛ tɨmbena
inferred [inf] tɨlli otɨllɛ tɨllena
reported [rep] tɨŋe oŋŋe tɨŋena
visual [vis] / Ø dantɨŋi danotni dantɨnna
non-visual [nvs] dantɨmbi danombɛ dantɨmbena
inferred [inf] dantɨlli odantɨllɛ dantɨllena
reported [rep] dantɨŋe danoŋŋe dantɨŋena

Nouns

And 9 nouns

motile sg motile pl sessile sg sessile pl
north wind (2) aɬudan aɬudna aɬudava aɬudnavi
breath (4) dɛleya dɛlɨdiya dɛle dɛli
traveler (1) dona donna donava donnavi
task (4) kyɛgeya kyɛgɨdiya kyɛgɛ kyɛgi
light (4) logeya logɨdiya logatan logi
sun (2) loho lonna lohava lonnavi
cloak (3) ludɨdɛn ludɨdi lude ludi
agreement (4) ŋyeheya ŋyehɨdiya ŋyehe ŋyehi
argument (4) tɛŋɛteya tɛŋɛtɨdiya tɛŋɛt tɛŋɛti

Everything Else

Three adjectives

  1. ɛnna two
  2. kɨtlɛ strong
  3. kyala warm

eight adverbs

  1. dɛmɛ doubt, open question
  2. edatta beginning
  3. giya able to, can, potentially
  4. iyɛ again, more
  5. liya separately, non-reciprocally
  6. mɛddatta finishing, ending
  7. mɛha inwards
  8. noya close, near, off

three adverbial conjunctions

  1. ala now, and now
  2. linoda finally, and finally
  3. tena what follows is a story

two clausal conjunctions

  1. na when, and at the same time
  2. nɛnsi and so, therefore

one phrasal conjunction

  1. ni…ni both…and

two modifiers

  1. na more modifies adjectives
  2. no more, close modifies adverbs

two prepositions

  1. nɛn along with, with, and
  2. o at, in, on

and nine pronouns.

motile sg motile pl sessile sg sessile pl
1 ma manna meya mannavi
2 ha hanna haya hannavi
3 dɨdɛn dɨdiya di dɨdi
4 deya dɨdiya da dayi
  1. baŋi who, which
  2. du that
  3. ki this
  4. ŋɛha reflexive, reciprocal
  5. sa one, the one, this one, that one, the other one

I’ll be back after the new year. Have a great holiday!